Phosphate salts refers to many different combinations of the chemical phosphate with salts and minerals. Foods high in phosphate include dairy products, whole grain cereals, nuts, and certain meats. Phosphates found in dairy products and meats seem to be more easily absorbed by the body than phosphates found in cereal grains. Cola drinks contain a lot of phosphate - so much, in fact, that they can cause too much phosphate in the blood.
People use phosphate salts for medicine. Be careful not to confuse phosphate salts with substances such as organophosphates, or with tribasic sodium phosphates and tribasic potassium phosphates, which are very poisonous.
Phosphate salts are taken by mouth for treating blood phosphate levels that are too low and blood calcium levels that are too high, and for preventing kidney stones. They are also taken for treating osteomalacia (often called “rickets” in children), a condition caused by a mineral imbalance in the body that leads to softening of the bones. Phosphate salts are also used for improving exercise performance, as an antacid for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and as a laxative for emptying the bowels before surgery.
Phosphate salts and calcium are applied to sensitive teeth to reduce pain.
Rectally, phosphate salts are used as a laxative to clean the bowels before surgery or intestinal tests.
Healthcare providers sometimes give potassium phosphate intravenously (by IV) for treating low phosphate and high calcium levels in the blood, and for preventing low phosphate in patients who are being tube-fed.
How it works
Phosphates are normally absorbed from food and are important chemicals in the body. They are involved in cell structure, energy transport and storage, vitamin function, and numerous other processes essential to health. Phosphate salts can act as laxatives by causing more fluid to be drawn into the intestines and stimulating the gut to push out its contents faster.
EffectivePreparing the bowel for a medical procedure
Sodium phosphate tablets (OsmoPrep, Visicol, Salix Pharmaceuticals, Raleigh, NC) are FDA-approved for cleansing the colon before a colonoscopy. Over-the-counter sodium phosphate solutions and enemas may also be used for bowel cleansing before medical procedures.
Taking sodium or potassium phosphate by mouth is effective for preventing or treating low phosphate levels in the blood. Intravenous phosphate salts may also treat low phosphate levels in the blood when used under the supervision of a physician.
Phosphate salts containing sodium, potassium, aluminum, or calcium are LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth short-term, when sodium phosphate is inserted into the rectum appropriately and short-term, or when potassium phosphate is used intravenously (by IV) under the supervision of a physician
Phosphate (expressed as phosphorus) is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken in amounts higher than 4 grams per day for adults younger than 70 years of age and 3 grams per day for people who are older.Regular long-term use can upset the balance of phosphates and other chemicals in the body and should be monitored by a healthcare professional to avoid serious side effects. Phosphate salts can irritate the digestive tract and cause stomach upset, diarrhea, constipation, and other problems.Do not confuse phosphate salts with substances such as organophosphates, or with tribasic sodium phosphates and tribasic potassium phosphates, which are very poisonous.
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Phosphate salts from dietary sources areLIKELY SAFEforpregnantorbreast-feeding women when used at the recommended allowances of 1250mgdaily for mothers between 14-18 years of age and 700 mg daily for those over 18 years of age. Other amounts arePOSSIBLY UNSAFEand should only be used with the advice and ongoing care of a healthcare professional.
Children: Phosphate salts are LIKELY SAFE for children when used at the recommended daily allowances of 460 mg for children 1-3 years of age; 500 mg for children 4-8 years of age; and 1250 mg for children 9-18 years of age. Phosphate salts are POSSIBLY UNSAFE if the amount of phosphate consumed (expressed as phosphorous) exceeds the tolerable upper intake level (UL). The ULs are 3 grams per day for children 1-8 years; and 4 grams per day for children 9 years and older.
Heart disease: Avoid using phosphate salts that contain sodium if you have heart disease.
Fluid retention (edema): Avoid using phosphate salts that contain sodium if you have cirrhosis, heart failure, or other conditions that can cause edema.
High levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia): Use phosphate salts cautiously if you have hypercalcemia. Too much phosphate could cause calcium to be deposited where it shouldn't be in your body.
High levels of phosphate in the blood: People with Addison's disease, severe heart and lung disease, kidney disease, thyroid problems, or liver disease are more likely than other people to develop too much phosphate in their blood when they take phosphate salts. Use phosphate salts only with the advice and ongoing care of a healthcare professional if you have one of these conditions.
Kidney disease: Use phosphate salts only with the advice and ongoing care of a healthcare professional if you have kidney problems.
Bisphosphonate medications and phosphate salts can both lower calcium levels in the body. Taking large amounts of phosphate salts along with bisphosphonate medications might cause calcium levels to become too low.Some bisphosphonates include alendronate (Fosamax), etidronate (Didronel), risedronate (Actonel), tiludronate (Skelid), and others.